TU-BERLIN Erläuterungen zur Vorlesung TWK an der TU-Berlin
Inst. f. Ökologie
  PD Dr. H. Kehl
Vegetationsökologie Tropischer & Subtropischer Klimate

back    S. F5 - 02
Mangrove an der Ost-Küste Australiens
(Brisbane und Frazer Island)


Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. (= Avicennia officinalis L.) - Graue Mangrove - mit Atemwurzeln. Der Baum erreicht eine Höhe bis 10m, selten 25m, ist verbreitet vom Indopazifik bis Sinai / Ägypten sowie Südafrika, Australien und Neuseeland. Aufn. Florian Bemmerlein-Lux im Sept. 2009 (bei Brisbane, Australien)

"Avicennia marina, the pioneer of mangrove species, is possibly the most widely distributed of all mangroves, ranging widely across the Indo-West Pacific. Cold tolerant populations are further recognised as genetic variants restricted to southern Australia and New Zealand. Where these varieties overlap, they appear to have no inhibition to genetic mixing. Zones of overlap occur in three areas of Australia, including: Gulf St Vincent in South Australia, Port Curtis to Moreton Bay in Queensland, and Wyndham to Karratha in Western Australia. ..." Icon für externe Hyperlinks(mangrovewatch.org) [date of access: 05.02.12]

Einzelexemplar von Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. (= Avicennia officinalis L.) im unmittelbaren Uferbereich eines stark degradierten Mangrove-Bestandes. Deutlich zu erkennen die spargelförmigen, negativ geotrop (nach oben) wachsenden Pneumatophoren (Atemwurzeln). Aufn. Florian Bemmerlein-Lux im Sept. 2009 (Frazer Island, Australien)
Grosser geschlossener Bestand von Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. (= Avicennia officinalis L.) - Graue Mangrove - an der Küste bei Brisbane. Aufn. Florian Bemmerlein-Lux im Sept. 2009 (Australien)

"In addition to its extraordinary wide tolerance of temperature conditions, Avicennia marina further shows remarkable adaptation to: 1) a wide range of tidal inundation levels varying from 1-10 m; 2) a wide moisture tolerance from the wettest to driest regions; 3) a wide tolerance of salinity varying from freshwater to hypersaline; and 4) various substrate types from reef flats, to sandy or rocky embayments and to fine clay mudflats. These features provide this species with significant dispersal advantages since it can become established in sites where no other mangrove can survive. Avicennia marina is distinguished from its closest relative in Australia, A. integra, by its acute leaf apices, capitate inflorescences, smaller flowers, mostly glabrous radicle and rounded fruit. Three varieties are recognised in Australia."
Icon für externe Hyperlinks(mangrovewatch.org) [date of access: 05.02.12]
Blütenstand von Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco - River mangrove bzw. Flussmangrove -, verschiedentlich auch 'Schwarze Mangrove' genannt. Aufn. Florian Bemmerlein-Lux im Sept. 2009 (bei Brisbane, Australien)

"Shrub or low tree growing to 6m tall, but in Singapore it usually grows up to only 1-2m tall.Leaves (4-8cm) thick, leathery dark green glossy above, paler below with prominent reddish midrib below. The leaves are arranged in spirals. Flowers white or pale pink and fragrant, appearing in a ball-like cluster of 10-20. They are rich in nectar. According to Tomlinson, from the structure of the flowers and the fact that these produce nectar and a fragrance, the plant seems to be pollinated by insects. But there are no records of flower visitors. The fruits and seeds are well adapted to water dispersal.

Fruit long (5-8cm) cylindrical with pointed tip, usually curved. They resemble long beans, tiny bananas or horns and are light green to pink. 'Corniculatus' means 'with little horns' while the Malay name 'Kachang' means 'bean'. Another Malay name for it is 'Kuku Lang Laut' which means 'Claw of the Sea Eagle'. Each fruit contains a single elongated seed which undergoes cyptovivipary, i.e., it germinates while on the parent tree, but does not emerge through the fruit wall until the propagule falls off. Bark fissured with numerous lenticels. Roots running along the soil surface." Icon für externe Hyperlinks(wildsingapore.com) [date of access: 05.02.12]

Rhizophora stylosa Griff., (Bildmitte, Mangrove mit Stelzwurzeln) und Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. links von Rh. stylosa. Aufn. Florian Bemmerlein-Lux im Sept. 2009 (Frazer Island, Australien).

"Rhizophora stylosa is the ubiquitous mangrove of Australia’s northern coastline. The species is tolerant of a wide range of exposure conditions allowing it to occupy both muddy downstream estuarine reaches, plus sandy, rocky, and coral reef rampart intertidal areas. It often forms monotypic stands of either columnar tall trees, or as dense and impenetrable thickets, depending on climate and sediment conditions. Rhizophora stylosa is distinguished chiefly from R. mucronata by its long slender style, and supported by: distinct bracts and bracteoles instead of minute ones; 4-16(rarely 1 or 64)-flowered inflorescences instead of 1-2(rarely 4)-flowered ones; regular ovoid-elliptic closed flower buds instead of irregular obovoid ones; and generally shorter propagules reaching 65 cm in length instead of 80 cm.

Rhizophora stylosa is commonly associated with other downstream estuarine species, Sonneratia alba, Avicennia marina and Camptostemon schultzii. In areas of less freshwater influence, R. stylosa can extend further upstream where it is associated with Ceriops tagal and C. australis, plus Avicennia marina and occasionally R. apiculata and R. X lamarckii."
Icon für externe Hyperlinks(mangrovewatch.org) [date of access: 05.02.12] Siehe auch "Verschiedene Wurzel-Typen in den Immerfeuchten Tropen"


Jungpflanzen von Rhizophora stylosa Griff. (Spotted Mangrove), von links Bild 1 und 2. Die 3. Jungpflanze ist unklar. Aufnahmen Florian Bemmerlein-Lux im Sept. 2009 (Frazer Island, Australien).
Zum Vergleich
Rhizophora mangle (Rote Mangrove).

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© H. Kehl / TU-Berlin - Institut für Ökologie

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