Harald Kehl
Priv. - Doz. Dr. rer. nat. habil.


harald.kehl(et)tu-berlin.de

TU-Berlin / Institut f. Ökologie
Ackerstr. 71-76
Sekr. ACK 13
D-13355 - Berlin-Mitte


Tel.:   +49 +30 - 314 726 68
Sprechstunde: Di. 11-13.00 Uhr (nur nach Vereinbarung)

Dr. habil. Harald Kehl
   

 Curriculum Vitae 

  • 2016 bis dato:
    • Evaluation of proposals submitted in response to the EC H2020 call for proposals, on behalf of EC REA, issued on the basis of the work programme(s) Horizon 2020- Societal Challenge 2 - 2016 calls, esp. ethics screening and review of the proposals that assesses whether the proposals complies with ethical principles and relevant national, EU and international, legislation incl. the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and the European Convention on Human Rights and its Supplementary Protocols have been allowed.
  • 2015 (02-07):
    • Technical Assistance and Quality Control of the LUCAS 2015 survey (Land Use / Cover Area frame sampling Survey) as External FollowUp Expert for LuxSpace Sàrl (on behalf of Eurostat).
  • 2012 bis 2013:
    • North Tajik Water Rehabilitation II Project – Feasibility Study (Central Asia, Tajikistan). Assigned as the Environmental and Climate Change Impact (CCI) Expert of the project, responsible for the entire environmental and Climate Change specific part of the Feasibility Study (FS). The project is carried out by Hydroplan, Worms, Germany, on behalf of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD).
  • 2011 bis 2013:
    • Science adviser for the Adaptation to Climate Change through Sustainable Resource Management and Cross-Border Cooperation for Disaster Prevention in Central Asia (SRM4DP) on behalf of Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, and planquadrat, Geoinformation.
  • 2011:
    • Ecosystems Classification and Mapping, N-African Ecosystems, esp. Egypt and Sudan, as key expert for the United States Geological Survey (USGS), RCMRD, USAID, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • 2010:
    • DG Research and Innovation of EC, technical review of the EC funded FP7 Collaborative Project (India, China, Vietnam).
  • 2009:
    • Consultancy for Pasture Survey and Provision of Analysis of Key Findings, on behalf of the Mountain Societies Development Support Programme (MSDSP), Tajikistan, in cooperation with planquadrat Geoinformation, Miesbach, Deutschland.

  • 2006 bis dato als Gutachter für EuropeAid (Entwicklung und Zusammenarbeit) oder EC DG for Research and Innovation, D1 Environment, Management of Natural Ressources:
    • Technical Review oder Begutachtung von Anträgen im Rahmen unterschiedlicher thematischer Programme, z.B. "Tropical Forests and Environment in Developing Countries", "Environment and Sustainable Management of Natural Resources, including Energy", "SWITCH-Asia - Promoting Sustainable Consumption and Production - SCP".

  • 2004:
  • 2003 - 2004:
    • Entwicklung und Durchführung von Workshops zum Thema "Transboundary Water Management" in W- bis O-Afrika sowie SO-Asien (Vietnam, Kambodscha, Laos) für InWEnt - Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung gGmbH, Berlin.
  • 1999 bis dato:
    • Entwicklung eines Ökosystem-Management-Projektes in Zusammenarbeit mit dem türkischen Forstministerium und der Technischen Universität Istanbul (Eurasian Institute of Earth Sciences und Dept. of Geodesy and Photogrammetry) sowie dem WWF-Turkey. Titel: "Ecosystem Rehabilitation and Preservation Project in the Amanos Mtn. Range (SE-Turkey)". Projektsteuerung durch AGNOS Dr. Kehl & Partner GbR - Institut für vertiefende Studien der Ökosystemanalyse und angewandter Forschung in der Regionalplanung und Entwicklung.
  • 1998 bis SoSe 2016:
    • Privat-Dozent an der TU-Berlin, FB07, für das Fach "Ökosystemanalyse und Vegetationskunde" (Landschaftsökologie, Landschafts- und Umweltplanung in Entwicklungsländern in der Studienrichtung Landschaftsplanung). LV "Vegetationsökologie trockener und warmer Klimate (Winterfeuchte Subtropen, Sommerfeuchte und Immerfeuchte Tropen)

  • 1998:
    • Habilitation im Fach Ökosystemanalyse und Vegetationskunde. Titel der Habilitationsschrift: "Eine landschaftsökologische Komplexanalyse zu den Ursachen extrazonaler Vegetation an der Westabdachung des Amanos (SE-Türkei)".
  • Von 1988 bis 1997
    • Entwicklung und Durchführung eines binationalen und interdisziplinären (Klima, Boden, Flora und Vegetation) landschaftsökologischen Forschungsprojektes in einer küstennahen Gebirgsregion der SO-Türkei. (vgl. LöKAT im Internet!), finanziert durch DFG, GTZ und Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft.
  • Wiss. Mitarbeiter von 1982-1987
    • im Sonderforschungsbereich 69 "Geowissenschaftliche Probleme arider Gebiete" im Teilprojekt "Boden- und Vegetationsentwicklung unter semi- bis hyperariden Bedingungen". Schwerpunkte: Vegetationsgeographie, Verbreitung und Etablierung mediterraner und saharo-arabischer Taxa in extremen Wüsten, Vegetationsdynamik in besiedelten und unbesiedelten Oasen.
  • 1985
    • Promotion zum Dr. rer. nat. (summa cum laude). Thema der Dissertation: "Zur mediterranen Flora und Vegetation der SW-Türkei und Problematik der Vegetationsentwicklung am Beispiel einer küstennahen Siedlung bei Antalya", Finanzierung durch DAAD. Schwerpunkte: Dynamik synanthroper Formationen und Biomassenproduktion unter Beweidungsdruck, Verbreitung von Ruderal- und Segetalvegetation in Siedlungsgebieten sowie der Macchie und ihren Degradationsstadien, Samenbankuntersuchungen.
  • Studium an der Ing.-Akademie Weihenstephan und TFH Berlin (Landespflege) sowie der TU-Berlin (Landschaftsentwicklung). Diplomarbeit an der TUB, Institut für Ökologie.

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 Arbeitsgebiete 

Fachliche Schwerpunkte:

  • Populations- und Vegetationsökologie,
  • Vegetationsgeographie,
  • Vegetationsdynamik als Folge von anthropo-zoogenem Einfluss,
  • Korrespondenzanalytische Darstellung und Bewertung ökosystemarer Wirkungskomplexe,
  • Vegetations- und Landschaftsgeschichte,
  • Ökosystemforschung in humiden bis ariden Winterregengebieten sowie tropischen Sommerregengebieten,
  • Integrierte Land-Management-Strategien (Boden, Wasser, Vegetation),
  • Theorie und Methoden des Umweltschutzes.
  • Evaluation of Climate Change Impact on Natural Resources, esp. on Natural Ecosystems and Water Supply (Central Asia, W-Africa), incl. Risk Management.
  • EU-Assessor (esp. EuropeAid) and Technical Reviewer for different Programmes and Projects focused on e.g. "Tropical Forests and Environment in Developing Countries", "Environment and Sustainable Management of Natural Resources, including Energy", "SWITCH-Asia - Promoting Sustainable Consumption and Production - SCP".

Geographische Schwerpunkte 

  • Subtropen:
    • Typisch mediterrane Winterregengebiete, z.B. östliche Mediterraneis (vornehmlich Griechenland, Türkei und Syrien), nördliches Afrika (Mittelmeerküste mit Marmarika in Ägypten und Cyrenaika in Libyen),
    • Aride Subtropen, z.B. östliche Sahara (Ägypten und Libyen), zentralasiatische extrem kontinentale Trockengebiete (z. B. Tajikistan).
  • Tropen:
    • Tropische aride Gebiete (z.B. N-Darfur im Sudan),
    • Tropische Sommerregengebiete (z.B. Savannen in Sudan, Burkina Faso, Kenya und Australien),
    • Tropische Regenwälder (z.B. Afrika, SO-Asien, Australien und S-Amerika).

Lehrtätigkeiten und Seminare

  • 2004 - 2007: EU-Twinning Projekt "Capacity Building in the Field of Environment for Turkey, Component 'Nature'" (BMU/GTZ/EU). Bisher durchgeführte Aktivitäten.

  • 1994 - SoSe 2016: Ökologie trockener und warmer Klimate (Trockene Mittelbreiten, Winterregengebiete, Subtropische / Tropische Wüsten, Sommerregengebiete, Immerfeuchte Tropen)
  • 2003, 08 - 13 Dec., Workshop "Face to Face" on "Integrated Water Management" in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) - "Carrying Capacities of Ecosystems: Ecology, Economics and Environmental Economy" on behalf of INWENT, Capacity Building International, Germany, in the framework of Global Campus 21: "Integrated Ground Water Management, regional and international".
  • 2003, 27 Nov. - 01. Dec., Feldafing (Germany), Workshop on "Transboundary Water Management" on behalf of INWENT, Capacity Building International, Germany, in the framework of Global Campus 21: "Integrated Ground Water Management, regional and international"
  • 2003 - 2004, Cooperation with the reform project of the Berlin Technical University, Faculty I, 'Acquiring Intercultural Competence as a Precondition for International Co-operation'.
  • 2003, 14 - 24 July, Berlin - Workshop on "Transboundary Water Management" on behalf of INWENT, Capacity Building International, Germany
  • 1999 - dato: Ökosystemanalyse und Vegetationskunde (Quartäre Vegetationsgeschichte Europas, Ausbreitungsbiologie).
  • 1986 - 1988: Entwicklungs- und Umweltplanung sowie Ressourcenschutz und Erholungsplanung in der Türkei,
  • 1975 - 1978: Biologielehrer an der gymnasialen Oberstufe (Genetik, Evolution, Umwelt und Ökologie).

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 Mitgliedschaften 

  • Mitglied der Organisation of Phytotaxonomic Investigations of the Mediterranean Area (OPTIMA)
  • Mitglied der Gesellschaft für Ökologie (GFÖ)
  • Mitglied des Botanischen Vereins von Berlin-Brandenburg
  • Mitglied der International Association for Vegetation Science (IAVS)
  • Ass. Mitglied des Biological Collection Information Service in Europe (Med Section)
  • Mitglied der NGO World Economy, Ecology & Development (WEED)
  • Mitglied des Council for Tropical and Subtropical Agricultural Research (ATSAF) e.V.
  • Mitglied der Arab Healthy Water Association (AHWA), Abroad Advisor.

 Journal Referee 

  • Turkish Journal of Botany
  • Acta Botanica Croatica
  • Plant Ecology (formerly Vegetatio)
  • CATENA, An Interdisciplinary Journal of Soil Science - Hydrology - Geomorphology focusing on Geoecology and Landscape Evolution


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 Veröffentlichungen  (Auswahl) 

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 Vorträge (Auswahl)

  • Kehl, H. (2009) The popular climate change and the illusion of ecosystem stability - How to react on the dynamics of nature.- The Fourth International Conference of the Egyptian Society for Environmental Sciences, "Impacts of Climate Change on Natural Resources", 10-11 Nov. 2009, Ismailia, Egypt (keynote speech).
  • Kehl, H. (2007) Integrative and Ecosystem Oriented Resources Management in the Amanos Mtns.- Antakya (Turkey), 2007.12.10/11.
  • Kehl, H. (2007) Integrative and Ecosystem Oriented Mountain Watershed Management - Ecosystem Rehabilitation & Resources Management in SE-Turkey (Amanos Mtn.).- Ankara University, 2007.08.13.-08.17.
  • Kehl, H. (2003) Carrying Capacities of Ecosystems: Ecology, Economics and Environmental Economy.- On behalf of INWENT, Capacity Building International, Germany, in the framework of Global Campus 21: Integrated Ground Water Management, regional and international.- Workshop "Face to Face" in Ouagadougou, 08 - 13 Dec. (Burkina Faso).
  • Kehl, H. (2003) Ecologically founded balancing of transboundary waters for human needs and warranty of transnational stable and sustainable ecosystems.- Workshop on Integrated Groundwater Management - West Africa, East Africa and South East Asia.- 26 Nov. - 2 Dec. 2003, Feldafing.
  • Kehl, H. (2003) Assessment of adequate carrying capacities of arid landscapes with Ecosystem Analysis and Landscape Ecology.- Workshop on "Transboundary Water Management" on behalf of INWENT, Capacity Building International, Germany, in the framework of Global Campus 21: "Integrated Ground Water Management, regional and international".- 14 - 24 July 2003, Berlin.
  • Kehl, H. (2002) Interdisciplinary Mountain Ecosystem Research in SE-Turkey (Amanos Mtn.), a Precondition for Effective Environmental Management Systems.- The Third International Remote Sensing of Urban Areas, 11-13 June 2002 in Istanbul (Turkey).
  • Kehl, H. (2000) Naturverständnis und pragmatischer Natur- bzw. Umweltschutz - Ein unlösbarer Konflikt?.- Evangelische Akademie, 18. Febr. 2000, Iserlohn.
  • Kehl, H. (2000) Rehabilitation and Preservation of an Unique Mountainous Vegetation Type of SE-Turkey.- Rotary Club, 12 Jan. 2000, Ankara.
  • Kehl, H. (1999) Biological Databases of Turkey.- Biocise Meeting, 18.-20. Juni, Verona (Italy).
  • Kehl, H. (1998) Ist die Beständigkeit des Standortes eine notwendige Illusion?- Habil.-Vortrag am 29. April 1998 am FB07 der TU-Berlin.
  • Kehl, H. (1997) Madagaskar - Lemur flambé?.- Ökologisches Kolloquium am 21. Mai im Institut für Ökologie (AB1) der TU-Berlin.
  • Kehl, H. (1995) Extrazonal vegetation types of SE-Turkey: Landscape ecological research and mapping in the Amanus Mt.- Proc. of the 5th Plant Life of South West Asia Symposium, Izmir, 21-29 May (Turkey).
  • Kehl, H. (1990) Preliminary results of a landscape ecological analysis as a basis for nature reserve in the Amanos Mtn. (SE-Turkey).- 3rd Plant Life of South West Asia Symposium, Berlin, 3-8 September, 1990.
  • Kehl, H. & R. Bornkamm (1988) The change of soil-vegetation interrelation with increasing aridity in the northern part of Egypt.- International Conference on 'Plant Growth, Drought and Salinity in the Arab Region', Giza, 3-7 December (Egypt).
  • Bornkamm, R. & H. Kehl (1987) Landscape Ecology of the Western Desert of Egypt.- International workshop on desert ecology 'What's Special About Desert Ecology?' at the Mitrani Centre for Desert Ecology, in Sede Boqer, 14-22 March (Israel).
  • Kehl, H. (1987) Zur Landschaftsökologie der Ostsahara (Western Desert of Egypt).- Zur Flora und Vegetation der Arabischen Halbinsel und angrenzender Räume.- Workshop des Lehrstuhls für Biogeographie der Universität Bayreuth in der Ökologischen Außenstation Wallenstein/ Frankenwald, 11-12 Juli.
  • Kehl, H. (1986) Syndynamic and floristical composition of macchia and their derivates along a disturbance gradient caused by a rural Turkish settlement.- 5th OPTIMA Meeting, Istanbul, 8-15 September (Turkey).

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 Abstracts (Auswahl)

  • Sayre, R. et al. (2013) A New Map of Standardized Terrestrial Ecosystems of Africa. Washington, DC.- Publ. by the Association of American Geographers (AAG) in collaboration with the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and the African Specialty Group of the AAG, A Special Supplement to the African Geographical Review. (Map Booklet, 24 pp., ISBN 978-0-89291-275-9)

    (Authors: Sayre, R., P. Comer, J. Hak, C. Josse, J. Bow, H. Warner, M. Larwanou, E. Kelbessa, T. Bekele, H. Kehl, R. Amena, R. Andriamasimanana, T. Ba, L. Benson, T. Boucher, M. Brown, J. Cress, O. Dassering, B. Friesen, F. Gachathi, S. Houcine, M. Keita, E. Khamala, D. Marangu, F. Mokua, B. Morou, L. Mucina, S. Mugisha, E. Mwavu, M. Rutherford, P. Sanou, S. Syampungani, B. Tomor, A. Vall, J. Vande Weghe, E. Wangui, and L. Waruingi)

    Terrestrial ecosystems and vegetation of Africa were classified and mapped as part of a larger effort and global protocol (GEOSS – the Global Earth Observation System of Systems), which includes an activity to map terrestrial ecosystems of the earth in a standardized, robust, and practical manner, and at
    the finest possible spatial resolution. To model the potential distribution of ecosystems, new continental datasets for several key physical environment datalayers (including coastline, landforms, surficial lithology, and bioclimates) were developed at spatial and classification resolutions finer than existing similar datalayers. A hierarchical vegetation classification was developed by African ecosystem scientists and vegetation geographers, who also provided sample locations of the newly classified vegetation units. The vegetation types and ecosystems were then mapped across the continent using a classification and regression tree (CART) inductive model, which predicted the potential distribution of vegetation types from a suite of biophysical environmental attributes including bioclimate region, biogeographic region, surficial lithology, landform, elevation and land cover. Multi-scale ecosystems were classified and mapped in an increasingly detailed hierarchical framework using vegetation-based concepts of class, subclass, formation, division, and macrogroup levels. The finest vegetation units (macrogroups) classified and mapped in this effort are defined using diagnostic plant species and diagnostic growth forms that reflect biogeographic differences in composition and sub-continental to regional differences in mesoclimate, geology, substrates, hydrology, and disturbance regimes (FGDC, 2008). The macrogroups are regarded as mesoscale (100s to 10,000s of hectares) ecosystems. A total of 126 macrogroup types were mapped, each with multiple, repeating occurrences on the landscape. The modeling effort was implemented at a base spatial resolution of 90 m. In addition to creating several rich, new continent-wide biophysical datalayers describing African vegetation and ecosystems, our intention was to explore feasible approaches to rapidly moving this type of standardized, continent-wide, ecosystem classification and mapping effort forward.


    >>>> Visit the Article (engl.) [17,3 MB]

  • Kehl, H. (2009) The popular climate change and the illusion of ecosystem stability - How to react on the dynamics of nature.- The Fourth International Conference of the Egyptian Society for Environmental Sciences, "Impacts of Climate Change on Natural Resources", 10-11 Nov. 2009, Ismailia, Egypt (keynote speech).

    Climate change will be the greatest environmental challenge facing future generations unless we stop overstressing the carrying capacities of the world's terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The over-exploitation and over-consumption of fundamental natural resources will increase day by day and human environments with their vital infrastructure for sources supply, traffic and living conditions in complex settlements are getting more and more sensitive against the normal dynamics of nature, especially abrupt changes of weather.

    In addition to the normal and natural dynamics of weather and climate, anthropogenic impacts on the climate system may exacerbate the effects and intensities of weather events. To encounter these challenges the development of adaptation and risk prevention strategies have to be one of the most urgent aims of decision makers all over the world. This contribution is a critical reflection on current debates on climate change impacts, which often disregard important questions and necessary solutions related to climate change adaptation and the exponential world population growth.

    >>>> Visit the Lecture (engl.)

  • Kehl, H. (2003) Conventional Concepts of Nature vs. Pragmatic Conservation: An irreconcilable Conflict?- Environmental Ethics. (in print)

    For some time the debate over the "right" sort of environmental protection has been steered by ideologically burdened debates over nature conservation, species diversity and maintenance, as well as the often postulated incompatibility of ecology and economy. Nature and "naturalness" have been enjoying great popularity and are gaining in political importance. A polarization of the environmental movement is occurring with, at one end, conservation focusing on preservation and at the other, economically driven sustainable environmental protection.

    In understanding of the history of landscapes and species is necessary for both orientations. However, preservationist conservation tends to underestimate the importance of the human influence on terrestrial ecosystems and the fact that even current environments are dynamic quite independently of human beings, that species themselves undergo continual transformation, and that stability exists nonetheless.

    Since "nature" is an emotionally laden term that can best be understood in a philosophical-religious context but is not scientifically useful, the term "environment," a word that is unburdened with philosophical implications, has been used here to indicate the particular reference quantity of individual creatures, since from this perspective it is easier to define what can and should be sustainably protected, how this should be done and with what aim (economic or intrinsic).

    By analyzing basic assumptions concerning "nature," "culture" and "artificiality" as well as stability and biodiversity the following article will attempt to overcome contradictions in the discussion concerning practicable environmental protection. This investigation also advocates at least a partial review of a posteriori reality, i.e., a paradigm change - in fact a change in our awareness of nature - as necessary condition for the solution of environmental problems. Since traditional assumptions and ahistorical methods which also lack proper quantification have proven to be unviable, the ever more popular advocacy for "pristine nature" should be called into question.

    >>>> Visit the Article (engl.)

  • Kehl, H. (2000) Traditionelles Naturverständnis und pragmatischer Umweltschutz - Ein unlösbarer Konflikt? - Vortrag im Febr. 2000 an der Evang. Akademie Iserlohn.

    Aus der Einleitung: Naturschutz beschäftigt sich selbstredend mit der Natur, einem Phänomen, dessen Definitionen so vielfältig und widersprüchlich sind, wie es philosophische Richtungen und Projektionen von Wirklichkeiten gibt. Entsprechend können Konflikte zwischen einem ideologiefreien, pragmatischen und effizienten Natur- bzw. Umweltschutz und den Vertretern naturphilosophischer, aber auch 'ökologistischer' Weltanschauungen, nicht ausbleiben.

    Hier soll der Versuch unternommen werden, Gegensätze zu überwinden durch Klärung bzw. Hinterfragung von Grundannahmen über "Natur", "Kultur" und "Künstlichkeit" sowie Stabilität und Biodiversität. Wenn wenigstens partiell ein Paradigmawechsel eingefordert wird, kann es nicht ausbleiben, mit diesem Beitrag Widerspruch auszulösen. Vor allem bei jenen, welchen liebgewonnene Annahmen Orientierung nicht mehr sein können. Bei Forstleuten wird er z.B. zu Unsicherheiten führen, welche eine Antwort nach der sogenannten Potentiell-Natürlichen-Vegetation (PNV) erwarten, um dem Anspruch einer möglichst‚ 'naturnahen' Aufforstung gerecht zu werden. Denn heute besteht weitgehend Konsens, dass Aussagen zur PNV ohne praktischen Wert sind und jede Antwort nur eine Spekulation sein kann. In Frage gestellt wird aber auch der immer häufiger geäußerte Anspruch auf unversehrte "Natur".

    Natur und Natürlichkeit genießen in der Diskussion um den Umweltschutz zunehmend große Popularität und, sie haben weitgehende politische Implikationen. Wie aber ist möglich, dass der Begriff "Natur" nirgendwo definiert wird, wo er doch so viele Gesetze und Verordnungen schmückt, im § 1, Absatz 1, des Bundesnaturschutzgesetzes gleich 5x erwähnt wird und selbst ein Bundesamt zur Zierde gereicht? Einen Rechtsbegriff dessen, was unter Natur zu verstehen ist, gibt es jedoch bis heute nicht. Wie und was soll aber nachhaltig mit welchem Ziel geschützt werden, wenn überhaupt nicht klar ist, was unter Natur zu verstehen ist?

    Der gesamte Vortrag kann >> HIER nachgelesen werden!

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  • Kehl, H. (1998) Eine landschaftsökologische Komplexanalyse zu den Ursachen extrazonaler Vegetation an der Westabdachung des Amanus (SE-Türkei)..- Habilitationsschrift an der Technischen Universität Berlin, FB07 (2 Vol., 656 pp., 8 Karten, 104 Abb., 75 Tab., 39 Fotos).- AGNOS Dr. Kehl & Partner, Berlin. (Hardcover: ISBN 3-00-003155-2; CD-ROM: ISBN 3-00-003156-1)

    Zusammenfassung (deutsch) und Abstract (englisch).
    Zur ausführlichen Präsentation des Forschungsprojektes (engl. / deutsch)

    >> hier Zum Projekt LöKAT! << klicken!

  • Kehl, H. (1995) Vegetation dynamics of macchie and their derivatives under the influence of a small settlement area near Antalya (SW-Turkey). - In: SUKOPP, NUMATA & HUBER (eds.) Urban Ecology as the Basis of Urban Planning, pp. 85-150.- SPB Academic Publishing bv., Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    The investigations were carried out in a rural area, located in the Eu-Mediterranean coastal belt near Antalya und include the ruderal flora of a small village and its bordering mosaic structure of Macchie formation with remnants of a disturbed Pinus brutia forest. The variation, serial structure and interactions of characteristic species groups of Macchie derivates with forb fringes, heliophilous plants of extensive pastures and Macchie clearings, ruderal and segetal sites of the settlement are presented. Population diversity and ecological groups were determined by the direct gradient analysis and a modified method of community classification. The seed bank has been studied during germination experiments at the Berlin Technical University, Institute of Ecology. These measures were taken to obtain more precise information about the potential species composition and the seasonal vegetation dynamics. The evaluation of the vegetation relevees, taken at equal intervals, phenological observations and seed bank analysis substantiate the existence of a gradient of human impact from the centre of the settlement, decreasing to the range land, representing a coenocline. The characteristic mosaic pattern modification of degraded Macchie is the result of various extensive agricultural influences. With decreasing distance to the edge of the village the Macchie remnants occur scattered and cushion-shaped. The disturbance gradient can be proven by the intermediate population pattern of species in a retrogressive sequence with taxa of different resistance against grazing, decreasing net production, although the number of species per sample is increasing with the nearness to the edges of the settlement.

    >>>> MEHR ...

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  • Kehl, H. (1987) Zonation and establishment of vegetation in selected uninhabited Egyptian and Sudanese oases.- Catena 14: 275-290.

    Flora and vegetation of uninhabited Egyptian and Sudanese oases have been surveyed to obtain more knowledge about their groundwater-dependence, distribution and establishment. Similarities in the floristic composition and the distribution pattern are assumed to be dependent on the gradients of salt-contents in soil, depth of groundwater table, and additionally, on salt-tolerance, reproduction behaviour and development of different root systems of the taxa concerned. The vegetative reproduction has an essential function for the preservation of the oases vegetation. Under extreme arid conditions the generative reproduction takes place after sufficient rainfall. Germination and stable establishment of species on the outer margin of the oases need a larger amount of rainfall than the vegetation in the centre.

    Flora und Vegetation unbesiedelter ägyptischer und sudanesischer Oasen werden im Hinblick auf ihre Grundwasserabhängigkeit, Verbreitung und Etablierung untersucht. Die Übereinstimmungen in ihrer floristischen Zusammensetzung und zonalen Gliederung werden im wesentlichen zurückgeführt auf die Versalzungs- und Grundwasserabstands-Gradienten sowie auf Unterschiede in der Salztoleranz, dem Vermehrungsverhalten und Bildung der Wurzelsysteme der beteiligten Taxa. Die vegetative Vermehrung ist von primärer Bedeutung für die Erhaltung der Oasenvegetation. Unter den extrem ariden Bedingungen ist eine generative Vermehrung nur nach ausreichendem Regen möglich, wobei Arten am Rande der Oasen höhere Niederschläge zu ihrer Etablierung benötigen.

    Gesamter Beitrag [2MB - 15 S.]

  • Kehl, H. & R. Bornkamm (1993) Landscape Ecology and Vegetation Units of the Western Desert of Egypt.- In: Meissner & Wycisk (eds.) Geopotential and Ecology, Analysis of a Desert Region.- Catena Supplement 26: 155-178.

    Flora and vegetation have been studied in the semidesert and arid Western Dersert of Egypt to obtain more knowledge about the ecological background of their distribution and establishment. The ecosystematical evaluation of different units of landscapes and distributional pattern of floristical groups and different ecosystems is represented in Ecological Maps with vegetation units. Species diversity, the abundance of species and the occurence of autochthonous and allochthonous ecosystems indicate a precipitation gradient leading from SE to NW, which shows a different effectiveness regarding the conditions of topography, soils and geomorphology. The floristical research was supported by seed bank investigations, which confirm the highest species diversity in landscape units with distinct relief energy.

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  • Kehl, H., K. Stahr & J. Gauer (1984) Soil-Vegetation relationship of a small catchment area on the Libyan plateau in NW-Egypt.- Berliner Geowiss. Abh. (A) 50: 303-324.

    A typical soil association and vegetation pattern on the Libyan Plateau was investigated 70km south of the mediterranean coast near Marsa Matruh. The landscape of strata-plains and outcrop scarps developed from miocene limestone of the marmarican formation. Under the recent conditions of 200C mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation of 30 to 50mm a Lithosol - Yermosol - Solonchak - Soil landscape was formed.
    Phytogeographically, the contracted vegetation belongs to the Saharo-Arabian Region with a high proportion of Irano-Turanian biregionals. Two community types were recognized. Communities characterized by Carduncellus mareoticus and Atriplex halimus are sharply restricted to the playa depression. Vegetation and soils form a ring-shaped pattern around the playa depression, and the distribution of the vegetation is correlated to certain soil characteristics. The fact that the center of the playa is completly free of vegetation was explained by the extremely unfavourable conditions for plant establishment on the silty-clayey Takyric Solonchak.

  • Alaily, F., R. Bornkamm, H.-P. Blume, H .Kehl and H. Zielinski (1987) Ecological investigations in the Gilf Kebir (SW-Egypt).- Phytocoenologia 15(1): 1-20.

    In order to investigate the ecological conditions in the extreme arid region of the E-Sahara, studies of soil and vegetation were carried out in the area of the Gilf Kebir plateau (SW-Egypt). Lithosols, Ortic Solonchaks andd Hablic Yermosols, mainly from sandstones, build up the soil association on the plateau. Cambic Arenosols, Eutric Regosols (or Eutric Fluvisols) from fluvial sediments abd Hablic Yermosols from debris as well as Takyric Yermosols and Solonchaks from playa sediments occur in the wadis. All soils are rich in plant nutrients, except nitrogen which occurs in high concentrations only in the Orthic Solonchaks.
    In the investigated area (appr. 3.000 km²) 15 plant species were recorded, only two of them in living state, the others as remains. The vegetation was restricted to mainly habitats: 1) Shallow depressions on the plateau (2 species on Haplic Yermosols), 2) different habitats in the wadis (9 species in different combinations
    depending on the size of the wadi), 3) sand fillings between the debris of vulcanite (5-7 species), 4) plains of the pediment (Cambic Arenosols bearing just one species, Stipagrostis acutiflora, that forms the borderline to the vegetation-free area E of the Gilf Kebir). In spite of its episodic character the vegetation may last more than one year (accidental vegetation in the sence of KASSAS).
    Vegetation growth is apparently induced by rainfalls at great intervals. All plant-bearing habitats have large catchment areas and are deep enough to store sufficient amounts of water and to protect it from evaporation. The majority of habitats is saline, only a minority bears non-halophytes.

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  • Alaily, F., R. Bornkamm, H.-P. Blume, H. Kehl and M. Renger (1987) Evaluation of Land in SW-Egypt.- Berliner Geowiss. Abh. (A) 75.2: 517-544.

    Soils and vegetation have been studied in the semi and extreme parts of West Egypt. According to the FAO soil classification 21 soil units of different phases were indentified in the field. The most frequent soils are orthic Solonchaks, Lithosols, cambic Arenosols, hablic Yermosols, eutric Regosols, calcic Yermosols and chromic Vertisols. By means of geological maps and LANDSAT images a soil association map at a scale 1 : 1.000.000 for south-west Egypt was established.
    Due to the insignificant rainfall in SW-Egypt land evaluation is carried out for irrigated agriculture, and for the common cultivated crops in Egypt. This work is done according to the framework for land evaluation of the FAO (1976). The determination of suitability orders, classes, subclasses and units was done mainly after estimating soil ecological parameters.
    The investigations concerning the distribution of flora and vegetation have been carried out for the ecosystematical evaluation of different units and landscapes. The distributional pattern of floristical groups and ecosystema is represented in Ecological Maps of the Western Desert of Egypt (Vegetation Units), based on the above mentioned Soil Association Map. Species distribution and the occurrence of autochthounous ecosystems indicate a precipitation gradient leading from SE to NW, which shows a different effectiveness regarding the conditions of topoggraphy, soils and morphology.
    The floristical research was supported by seed bank investigations, which confirm the highest concentration of vegetation distribution in landscape units with sufficient relief energy.

  • Bornkamm, R. & H. Kehl (1990) The plant communities of the Western Desert of Egypt.- Phytocoenologia 19(2): 149-231.

The Western Desert (formerly called the eastern part of the Libyan Desert) extends from the Mediterranean to the Sudanian border, and from the Libyan border to the Nile, thus comprising two thirds of the Egytian territory. Much vegetation research has already been done in this region, but has mainly been restricted to the coastal area and the oases. The present investigation was carried out in the frame work of the Special Research Project "Geoscientific problems in arid areas" and will contribute to close the gaps knowledge. We describe 89 vegetation units, belonging to 47 associations or monotypic stands. The specific (dwarf-)shrubby desert communities belong to two alliances, the 'Thymelaeion hirsutae' Eig 1946 and the 'Zgophyllion coccinei' El-Sharkawi et al. 1984, here combined into the new order 'Pituranthetalia tortuosi'.
In summary, 5 desert zones can be discerned: I) Semidesert (settled, grazed, dry farming, vegetation diffuse), close to the coast, II) full desert (grazed, vegetation permanent but becoming contracted), III) extreme desert 1 (vegetation at least partially permanent), IV) extreme desert 2 (vegetation completely accidental), V) extreme desert 3 (allochthonous ecosystems). Deviations from the zonal arrangement are caused by the geomorphological conditions in the Farafra depression and the geomorphological - climatological conditions in the Qattara depression.

Inhaltsangabe (Contents)
Seiten 149-168
[20 S., 5,46MB]
Seiten 169-188 [20 S., 2,87MB]
Seiten 189-208 [20 S., 3,44MB]
Seiten 209-231 [23 S., 2,99MB]
List of all plant species found in the Western Desert of Egypt (Eastern Sahara / Libyan Desert)

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  • Bornkamm, R. & H. Kehl (1989) Landscape ecology of the western desert of Egypt.- Journal of Arid Environments 17: 271-277.

    ".... In the following paper we characterize five desert zones, referring only to precipitation - dependent vegetation, which means that oases are excluded (...). If we disregard the littoral habitats, the northernmost zone of the Western Desert shows dwarf shrub vegetation with Thymelaea hirsuta as the most important plant. Other species dominating different communities are Asphodelus microcarpus, Plantago albicans, Hamada scoparia (in degraded land) and Lycium europaeum as a higher shrub (in wadis) (...). The phytogeographic analysis shows predominantly Sahara-Arabian species with a rather large proportion of Mediterranean species ...."

    Gesamter Beitrag
    [1MB - 7 S.]

  • Bornkamm, R. & H. Kehl (1985) Pflanzengeographische Zonen in der Marmarika (NW-Ägypten). 'Phytogeographical Zones in the Marmarica (NW-Egypt).- Flora 176: 141-151.

    In the course of vegetation surveys in the Marmarica (NW-Egypt), between the Mediterranean coast near Mersa Matruh and the Qattara-Depression, numerous lists of plant species were compiled. The phytogeographical evaluation of these species lists made it evident that the Saharo-Arabian element is dominant in the whole area under investigation, and that the domination nearly equally extends over several different life-forms. In the coastal area both the Mediterranean and the steppic element of Irano-Turanian origin contribute in rather high proportion to the total number of species, the former decreasing rapidly with increasing distance from the sea. Both elements consist mainly of Therophytes, but they never dominate the physiognomy of the landscape. The Sudanian element, only scarcely represented on the Libyan Plateau, shows a remarkable occurence at the margins of the Qattara-Depression, esp. near the Qara oasis.
    The various existing maps of phytogeographical regions within NW-Egypt are discussed; a new regional classification is proposed for the area investigated.

  • Schneider, U. & H. Kehl (1987) Samenbank und Vegetationsaufnahmen ostmediterraner Therophytenfluren im Vergleich. - 'Seedbank and vegetation relevees of E-Mediterranean therophyte stands in comparison'.- Flora 179: 345-354.

    In a rural Turkish settlement within the Eu-Mediterranean coastal belt near Antalya, soil samples were taken for determination of the seed bank and in addition to phytosociological investigations. This measure was taken to obtain more precise information about the potential species composition and the seasonal dynamics. During a period of 16 months, germination experiments have been carried out at the Institute of Ecology, Berlin Technical University. 1714 seedlings were counted, of which 245 died unidentified. A number 1469 (85,7%) seedlings had been recognized and classified into 83 species. The identified plants were classified and grouped as character-species of the Macchie and their derivates, esp. the community of overgrazed pseudo-steppic vegetation (Trift), trampling, ruderal and weed vegetation of arable fields and compared with vegetation relevees of the soil sample areas. 35 species were found only in the soil samples. This resulted in a mean correspondence of 58% between seed bank and determined species of the actual vegetation.
    It is being discussed why seed bank species could not be found in the vegetation, whereas others with a high cover value had no seed depositions in the soil.

    >>>Mehr ...

  • Stahr, K., R. Bornkamm, J. Gauer, & H. Kehl (1989) Veränderung von Böden und Vegetation am Übergang von Halbwüste zur Vollwüste zwischen Mittelmeer und Quattara Depression in Ägypten.- Geoökodynamik 6: 99-120.

    "Along a transect through the Marmarica Plateau og NW Egypt pedological, vegetational and climatological studies have been made reaching from mediterranen influenced semi-desert over (full) desert to extreme desert conditions. In the course of of the transect precipitation decreases from ca. 150 mm to less than 20 mm. In the same direction the mean annual temperature increases from ca. 10° to 21° C, accompanied by higher continentality of the climate. The vegetation changes from the diffuse to the contracted, purely episodical vegetation. In the course of this change shrubs and geophytes decrease. wheras chamaephytes show relative increase. In the least aridic zone luvic Xerosols are widespread, with enormous calcretes in the subsoil. Depth and thickness of cacretes decreases along the transect. In the typical haplic Yermosols any transport of lime is missing. In the driest part of the transect gypsum cristals do occur just below the vesicular desert pan.

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Auslandsaufenthalte und Exkursionen (Auswahl) 

  • Ägypten (mehrjähriges Forschungsprojekt: Marmarica mit Siwa Oasis, zentrale östliche Sahara bis Gilf Kebir und N-Darfur im Sudan);
  • Australien (Atherton-Tableland mit Regenwäldern und tropische NO - Küsten - Region am Golf von Carpentaria, mediterraner Süden und arides Zentrum);
  • Burkina Faso (Savannengürtel);
  • China (tropischer Süden bis warmtemperierter Nordosten);
  • Ecuador (mehrere Exkursionen in das Anden-Hochland, die Küsten-Region und auf die Galapagos Inseln);
  • Indonesien (Irian Jaya / West-Neuguinea bzw. West-Papua - Ostküste und Hochland);
  • Iran (Arides Zentrum, Elburs-Gebirge und Küsten-Region des Kaspischen Meeres);
  • Kolumbien (Amazonas-Region und Hochland);
  • Libyen (Küste der Tarabulus-Region, Große Syrte bis Binghazi-Region mit Jabal El Akhtar und westliche Wüste bis Ghadamis);
  • Madagaskar (tropische Regenwälder an der Ostabdachung, mittleres und südliches Hochland, Westabdachung und westliche Küsten-Region bis zum ariden Süden);
  • Papua Neu Guinea (östliche Schwemmlandebene und zentrales Hochland);
  • Philippinen (Sumpflandschaften Zamboangars);
  • Sudan (Sahelzone und unbewohnte Oasen nördlich des Sahel);
  • Tajikistan (GBAO, zentrales Pamir-Hochland und NO-Gebiete nahe Usbekistan mit dem Ferghana- und Zarafshan-Tal);
  • Türkei (einige mehrjährige Forschungsprojekte sowie mehrere Exkursionen in die Schwarzmeer-Region, das zentrale Hochland sowie in die SW- und SO-Region);
  • Ungarn (Schwemmlandebene zwischen Theis und Donau sowie nordöstliche Mittelgebirge).
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© Harald Kehl

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Aktualisiert am Sun, 23-Apr-2017